Congenital hip dislocation

 

Forms of the condition

Types of misalignments of femur head to socket in hip dysplasia. A: Normal. B: Dysplasia. C: Subluxation. D: Luxation
Hip dysplasia can range from barely detectable to severely malformed/ dislocated. The congenital form, teratologic or non-reducible dislocation occurs as part of more complex conditions.

The condition can be bilateral or unilateral:

  • If both hip joints are affected one speaks of "bilateral" dysplasia. In this case some diagnostic indicators like asymmetric folds and leg-length inequality do not apply.
  • In unilateral dysplasia only one joint shows deformity, the contralateral side may show resulting effects. In the majority of unilateral cases the left hip has the dysplasia.

If the joint is fully dislocated a false acetabulum often forms (often higher up on the pelvis) opposite the dislocated femoral head position.
In actetabular dysplasia the acetabulum (socket) is too shallow or deformed. The center-edge angle is measured as described by Wiberg. In coxa vara the femur head grows at too narrow an angle to the shaft, in coxa valga the angle is too wide.

A rare type, the "Beukes familial hip dysplasia" is found among Afrikaners that are members of the Beukes family. The femur head is flat and irregular. Sufferers develop osteoarthritis at an early age.

 

 

 

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